The rise of Christian Europe, or Christendom, basically signifies that most cultural institutions, such as universities and even kings and parliaments, initially started both as extensions of the church or beneath the authority of the church. Europe is covered in peninsulas – such because the Iberian Peninsula, Scandinavia, and Italy – and mountain ranges – notably the Alps and Apennines. The frigid tundra of Scandinavia contrasts with the warm Mediterranean coastline to the south, however the interior of Europe is usually cool and temperate. Its largest metropolis is Moscow, which has over 16 million individuals, and its longest river, the Volga, runs through Russia near the Asian border.
European conquest was primarily English, French, and Spanish, although the Dutch, Danish, and Russians controlled some territory as well. Originally, it was small outposts to supply valuable crops like gold, cotton, tobacco, fur, and sugar, but over time as the settler population grew, farming and logging grew to turn out to be more necessary, notably within the English and French areas. The French lost the overwhelming majority of their territory within the Seven Years War ( ), but the economic cost of that war, among different causes, led a lot of the British areas to insurgent in 1776 and ultimately form the United States of America. Rapid decolonization adopted in the 19th century, both by insurrection , or by peaceful agreement . In complete, the double continent has a north-south extension of more than 15,600 kilometres (~9700 miles) and stretches from the Arctic cape Morris Jesup in Greenland to the Chilean cape Hoorn. The Jesuit order was fundamental in collaborating with royal authorities to determine a robust central government in Brazil.
By the time the Intensified Eradication Program started in 1967, smallpox was already eliminated in North America and Europe . The Program made steady progress toward ridding the world of this disease, and by 1971 smallpox was eradicated from South America, adopted by Asia , and at last Africa . 7th Century—Arab expansion spreads smallpox into northern Africa, Spain, and Portugal. Crunchbase converts foreign currency exchange to U.S. dollars at the prevailing spot price from the date funding rounds, acquisitions, IPOs and other monetary events are reported.
Latin America was initially the home of thriving civilizations of indigenous peoples, such as the Olmecs, Aztecs, Maya, and Incas. Beginning in the sixteenth century, Spanish conquistadors (“conquerors” – most notably Hernando Cortes in Mexico and Francisco Pizarro in Peru), Portuguese explorers, and different overseas powers arrived and began colonizing the indigenous peoples. Their civilizations shortly collapsed, and their cultures are no longer dominant. Some islands in the Caribbean, such because the Greater and Lesser Antilles, are thought of a part of South America, whereas others, corresponding to Cuba, Jamaica, and the Dominican Republic, are thought of to be a half of North America. In terms of tradition, the peoples that inhabit these islands most likely have more in frequent with those of Latin America. Since Mexico and Central America are culturally extra much like South America, the complete region is right here grouped as Latin America.